Programmable devices – in the form of CPLDs, FPGAs, and related devices – offer tremendous advantages over components whose algorithms and functions are "frozen in silicon."
Today's state-of-the-art, high-end programmable devices boast the equivalent of tens of millions of logic gates, thousands of DSP functions, megabits of on-chip memory, embedded hard- and soft-core processors, dozens of 28Gbit/s SerDes channels... and the list goes on. These devices are capable of prototyping high-end ASICs and SoCs, or even replacing them, in a wide range of extreme-performance applications, such as broadcast, networking and communications, robotic vision, video and imaging, military and aerospace… and the list goes on.
At the other end of the spectrum are ultra-low-power programmable devices that are appearing in battery-powered handheld products like tablet computers, smartphones, digital cameras, pico projectors, and... once again... the list goes on.
All of this explains why any system architect or hardware design engineer looking at creating any form of electronic system or product now includes programmable devices in all their forms as part of the deliberations.
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Would you class these as adages, aphorisms, axioms, dictums, epigrams, maxims, precepts, saws, truisms, or... well, what?
Here we discover how to use the XADC (Xilinx Analog-to-Digital Convertor) in the Zynq All Programmable SoC to read the chip's internal temperature and voltage parameters and output them over an RS-232 link.
When extreme thermal cycling causes circuit boards and chip packages and the silicon die in the packages to expand and contract at different rates, problems may ensue.
In part 3 of this epic tale we consider how we might use tri-state buffers, leading up to the legendary bi-directional buffer.
Digital engineers are often confused among operational amplifiers, differential amplifiers, and instrumentation amplifiers; this is exacerbated by the fact that their circuit symbols can be similar.